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Old Testament Scripture On the Jewish Question



  Jesus in Genesis ... and also His Mother, the Blessed Virgin Mary  
I will put enmity between you and the woman,
and between your seed and her seed;
he shall bruise your head,

and you shall bruise his heel.

      Genesis 3:15  


  The Divine Command to Abraham to Sacrifice his son, Isaac  
The central proto-Salvific event of the Old Testament, prefiguring the Salvific Sacrifice of God the Son

After these things God tested Abraham, and said to him, Abraham! And he said, “Here am I.” He said, Take your son, your only son Isaac, whom you love, and go to the land of Moriah, and offer him there as a burnt offering upon one of the mountains of which I shall tell you. So Abraham rose early in the morning, saddled his ass, and took two of his young men with him, and his son Isaac; and he cut the wood for the burnt offering, and arose and went to the place of which God had told him. On the third day Abraham lifted up his eyes and saw the place afar off. Then Abraham said to his young men, “Stay here with the ass; I and the lad will go yonder and worship, and come again to you.” And Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering, and laid it on Isaac his son [as the Cross was to be laid on Jesus the Son of God]; and he took in his hand the fire and the knife. So they went both of them together. And Isaac said to his father Abraham, “My father!” And he said, “Here am I, my son.” He said, “Behold, the fire and the wood; but where is the lamb for a burnt offering?” Abraham said, “God will provide himself the lamb for a burnt offering, my son.” So they went both of them together.

When they came to the place of which God had told him, Abraham built an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac his son, and laid him on the altar, upon the wood. Then Abraham put forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son. But the angel of the Lord called to him from heaven, and said, “Abraham, Abraham!” And he said, “Here am I.” He said, “Do not lay your hand on the lad or do anything to him; for now I know that you fear God, seeing you have not withheld your son, your only son, from me.” And Abraham lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, behind him was a ram, caught in a thicket by his horns; and Abraham went and took the ram, and offered it up as a burnt offering instead of his son. So Abraham called the name of that place The Lord will provide; as it is said to this day, “On the mount of the Lord it shall be provided.”

And the angel of the Lord called to Abraham a second time from heaven, and said, By myself I have sworn, says the Lord, because you have done this, and have not withheld your son, your only son, 17 I will indeed bless you, and I will multiply your descendants as the stars of heaven and as the sand which is on the seashore. And your descendants shall possess the gate of their enemies, 18 and by your descendants shall all the nations of the earth bless themselves, because you have obeyed my voice.

    Genesis 22:1-18 (from the Revised Standard Version translation of the Bible)  
  σπερμα – σπερματι – semen – semine – seed  
אֹיְבָֽיו׃ שַׁ֥עַר אֵ֖ת זַרְעֲךָ֔ וְיִרַ֣שׁ הַיָּ֑ם עַל־שְׂפַ֣ת אֲשֶׁ֖ר וְכַח֕וֹל הַשָּׁמַ֔יִם כְּכוֹכְבֵ֣י אֶֽת־זַרְעֲךָ֙ אַרְבֶּ֤ה וְהַרְבָּ֨ה אֲבָרֶכְךָ֗ כִּֽי־בָרֵ֣ךְ 17
בְּקֹלִֽי׃ שָׁמַ֖עְתָּ אֲשֶׁ֥ר עֵ֕קֶב הָאָ֑רֶץ גּוֹיֵ֣י כֹּ֖ל בְזַרְעֲךָ֔ וְהִתְבָּרֲכ֣וּ 18
  22 בראשית  
  17 η μην ευλογων ευλογησω σε και πληθυνων πληθυνω το σπερμα σου ως τους αστερας του ουρανου και ως την αμμον την παρα το χειλος της θαλασσης και κληρονομησει το σπερμα σου τας πολεις των υπεναντιων 18 και ενευλογηθησονται εν τω σπερματι σου παντα τα εθνη της γης ανθ' ων υπηκουσας της εμης φωνης  
    Γένεσις 22:17-18 Η Μετάφραση των Εβδομήκοντα – The Translation of the Seventy – The Septuagint
  17 benedicam tibi et multiplicabo semen tuum sicut stellas caeli et velut arenam, quae est in litore maris. Possidebit semen tuum portas inimicorum suorum, 18 et benedicentur in semine tuo omnes gentes terrae, quia oboedisti voci meae.  
    Liber Genesis 22:17-18 of the Versio Vulgata translation of Sanctus Hieronymus – Εὐσέβιος Σωφρόνιος Ἱερώνυμος – Saint Jerome (* 347 – 30 September 420 †)  
  17 That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; 18 And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.  
    Genesis 22:17-18 (from the King James Version translation of the Bible)  
  17 I will bless thee, and I will multiply thy seed as the stars of heaven, and as the sand that is by the sea shore: thy seed shall possess the gates of their enemies. 18 And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because thou hast obeyed my voice.  
    Genesis 22:17-18 (from the Douay-Rheims translation of the Bible)  
  And later God continues the Abrahamic land Promise to Isaac  
  And when a famine came in the land, after that barrenness which had happened in the days of Abraham, Isaac went to Abimelech king of the Palestines to Gerara. And the Lord appeared to him and said: Go not down into Egypt, but stay in the land that I shall tell thee. And sojourn in it, and I will be with thee, and will bless thee: for to thee and to thy seed I will give all these countries, to fulfill the oath which I swore to Abraham thy father. And I will multiply thy seed like the stars of heaven: and I will give to thy posterity all these countries: and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed. Because Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my precepts and commandments, and observed my ceremonies and laws. So Isaac abode in Gerara.
... And he [Isaac] went up from that place to Bersabee [Beer-sheba], Where the Lord appeared to him that same night, saying: I am the God of Abraham thy father; do not fear, for I am with thee: I will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for my servant Abraham's sake.
    Genesis 26:1-6, 23-24 (from the Douay-Rheims translation of the Bible)  





  King Saint David the Psalmist in stonecarve base relief on the Церковь Покрова на Нерли – Church of the Intercession on the Nerl  
  Nearly the same composition is on the eastern and northern sides of Церковь Покрова на Нерли – the Church of the Intercession on the Nerl River. That pictured here is on the southern side, a stonecarve base relief of King Saint David the Psalmist flanked by birds and lions, symbolizing the conflict between good and evil. David holds a harp in his left hand, and with his right hand he crosses himself, stark medieval symbolism reminding the world that King Saint David, like Abraham and Moses and other Old Testament prophets, is a Christian saint, not a Talmudic or atheist Jew. Christ Jesus, and with Him those who are in Him, Is the Biblical Israel.  




Grace, Concealed in the Old Testament, is Revealed in the New.

This grace hid itself under a veil in the Old Testament, but it has been revealed in the New Testament according to the most perfectly ordered dispensation of the ages, forasmuch as God knew how to dispose all things. And perhaps it is a part of this hiding of grace, that in the Decalogue, which was given on Mount Sinai, only the portion which relates to the Sabbath was hidden under a prefiguring precept. The Sabbath is a day of sanctification; and it is not without significance that, among all the works which God accomplished, the first sound of sanctification was heard on the day when He rested from all His labours. On this, indeed, we must not now enlarge. But at the same time I deem it to be enough for the point now in question, that it was not for nothing that the nation was commanded on that day to abstain from all servile work, by which sin is signified; but because not to commit sin belongs to sanctification, that is, to God's gift through the Holy Spirit. And this precept alone among the others, was placed in the law, which was written on the two tables of stone, in a prefiguring shadow, under which the Jews observe the Sabbath, that by this very circumstance it might be signified that it was then the time for concealing the grace, which had to be revealed in the New Testament by the death of Christ—the rending, as it were, of the veil. Matthew 27:51 For when, says the apostle, it shall turn to the Lord, the veil shall be taken away. 2 Corinthians 3:16

    On the Spirit and the Letter, Chapter 27  


  Novum Testamentum in Vetere latet. Vetus Testamentum in Novo patet.
(or Novum Testamentum in Vetere latet, et in Novo Vetus patet.) –
The New Testament is hidden in the Old and the Old is revealed in the New.
    Saint Augustine of Hippo, [Quaestiones in Heptateuchum 2.73]  



  And when all these things come upon you, the blessing and the curse, which I have set before you, and you call them to mind among all the nations where the Lord your God has driven you, 2 and return to the Lord your God, you and your children, and obey his voice in all that I command you this day, with all your heart and with all your soul; 3 then the Lord your God will restore your fortunes, and have compassion upon you, and he will gather you again from all the peoples where the Lord your God has scattered you. 4 If your outcasts are in the uttermost parts of heaven, from there the Lord your God will gather you, and from there he will fetch you; 5 and the Lord your God will bring you into the land which your fathers possessed, that you may possess it; and he will make you more prosperous and numerous than your fathers. 6 And the Lord your God will circumcise your heart and the heart of your offspring, so that you will love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul, that you may live. 7 And the Lord your God will put all these curses upon your foes and enemies who persecuted you. 8 And you shall again obey the voice of the Lord, and keep all his commandments which I command you this day. 9 The Lord your God will make you abundantly prosperous in all the work of your hand, in the fruit of your body, and in the fruit of your cattle, and in the fruit of your ground; for the Lord will again take delight in prospering you, as he took delight in your fathers, 10 if you obey the voice of the Lord your God, to keep his commandments and his statutes which are written in this book of the law, if you turn to the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul."  
    Deuteronomy 30:1-10 [emphasis added]  




ךְ"תַּנַ Tanakh is an acronym TaNaKh = Torah - תּוֹרָה (Teaching) + Nevi'im - נְבִיאִים ("Prophets") + Ketuvim - כְּתוּבִים ("Writings").    
    תּוֹרָה Torah Πεντάτευχος Pentateuch      
    בְּרֵאשִׁית Bereshit Γένεση (ή Γένεσις) - Genesis  
    ‏שִׁמוֹת Sh'mot Έξοδος - Exodus  
    וַיִּקְרׇא‎ Vayikra Λευιτικός - Leviticus  
    בַּמִּדְבָּר Bamidbar Ἀριθμοί (Arithmoi) - Numbers  
    דְּבָרִים Devarim Δευτερονόμιον - Deuteronomy  
  נְבִיאִים Nevi'im Prophets      
      Nevi'im Rishonim Former Prophets    
    כְּתוּבִים Ketuvim Writings        



Tanakh ךְ"תַּנ  

The Tanakh means the entire canon of the Hebrew or Jewish Bible. It is actually an acronym, comprised of the first Hebrew letter of each of the Masoretic Text's three traditional subdivisions:

  • Torah - תּוֹרָה ("Teaching"),
  • Nevi'im - נְבִיאִים ("Prophets") and
  • Ketuvim - כְּתוּבִים ("Writings").

thus TaNaKh (transliteration limitations, as in English it appears as though the acronym would be better rendered as Tonek — ToNeK).

For Catholic, Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Christians, that is, for the Orthodox-Catholic Church, the Old Testament canon can be spoken of as including protocanonical scripture and deuterocanonical scripture. The protocanonical books are: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, Ruth, 1–2 Samuel, 1–2 Kings, 1–2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Song of Solomon, Isaiah, Jeremiah, Lamentations, Ezekiel, Daniel, Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi. The term deuterocanonical, from the Greek, means "belonging to the second canon," but these deuterocanonical scriptures, unfortunately with some comparatively very minor variations among the Churches as to which scripture makes the list, are considered canonical by Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox.


; corresponding, though not exactly, to what Christians call the Old Testament. This Jewish canon is also referred to as the Masoretic Text, indeed Tanakh is But note that oldest extant copies of the Masoretic Text date from the 9th or 10th Centuries, AD. The oldest nearly complete manuscripts of the Jewish canon in any language are manuscripts of the Septuagint -- the LXX, the Koine Greek translation of the Hebrew Scriptures completed in Alexandria around 100 BC, or a little earlier -- the oldest of which are included in the Codex Vaticanus (4th Century, Anno Domini), the Codex Sinaiticus (4th Century, Anno Domini), and the Codex Alexandrinus (5th Century, Anno Domini), all three of which derive from the same LXX. Other manuscripts of only fragments of the Jewish canon are much older than either the Septuagint or the Masoretic Text. Understanding differences among Septuagint, Masoretic and Vulgate manuscripts and textual analysis and criticism of these is a highly specialized and complex science which the present writer is not remotely qualified to enter into even in the most introductory ways that might be imagined.

Torah תּוֹרָה Pentateuch - Πεντάτευχος

Torah is synonymous with Pentateuch only in part. Though there may still be scholarly debate as to how ancient the tradition is of dividing the first part of the Bible into five books, the Greek word Pentateuch refers to those Five Books of Moses, the written Torah, in Hebrew תּוֹרָה. This Pentateuch, these Five Books are:

  • Genesis - Γένεση (ή Γένεσις) - (origin), in Hebrew Bereshit / בְּרֵאשִׁית, "In the beginning";
  • Exodus - Έξοδος (going out), in Hebrew, Shemot / שִׁמוֹת, "Names";
  • Leviticus - Λευιτικός (relating to the Levites), in Hebrew Vayikra / ויקרא, literally "And He called";
  • Numbers - Ἀριθμοί (numbering of the Isrealites), in Hebrew Bəmidbar / במדבר, literally "In the desert [of]"; and
  • Deuteronomy - Δευτερονόμιον (second law), in Hebrew Devarim / דברים, literally "Things" or "Words" .

But Torah — "direction" or "instruction" or "teaching" or "the Law" — in Jewish use can also refer, in addition to these Five Books of Moses, to so-called oral Torah, ordinances which put into effect the laws contained in the Pentateuch and commentaries or indeed to the totality of Jewish doctrine. At all events the Torah as Pentateuch is the foundational text of Judaism and is part of the Tanakh, the Jewish Bible.







In that day the remnant of Israel and the survivors of the house of Jacob will no more lean upon him that smote them, but will lean upon the Lord, the Holy One of Israel, in truth. 21 A remnant will return, the remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God. 22 For though your people Israel be as the sand of the sea, only a remnant of them will return. Destruction is decreed, overflowing with righteousness. 23 For the Lord, the Lord of hosts, will make a full end, as decreed, in the midst of all the earth.
  Isaiah 10:20-23  






The sons of Noah who went forth from the ark were Shem, Ham, and Japheth. Ham was the father of Canaan. These three were the sons of Noah; and from these the whole earth was peopled. Noah was the first tiller of the soil. He planted a vineyard; and he drank of the wine, and became drunk, and lay uncovered in his tent. And Ham, the father of Canaan, saw the nakedness of his father, and told his two brothers outside. Then Shem and Japheth took a garment, laid it upon both their shoulders, and walked backward and covered the nakedness of their father; their faces were turned away, and they did not see their father's nakedness. When Noah awoke from his wine and knew what his youngest son had done to him, he said, "Cursed be Canaan; a slave of slaves shall he be to his brothers." He also said, "Blessed by the LORD my God be Shem; and let Canaan be his slave." God enlarge Japheth, and let him dwell in the tents of Shem; and let Canaan be his slave."      
  Genesis 9:18-27